Recording Pioneers

Christiaan SNOUCK HURGRONJE  1857 - 1936   arrowarrow PIONEER    PARENTS    LIFE    NOTES    LABELS    PHOTOS    THANK YOU


Christiaan SNOUCK HURGRONJE  1857 - 1936

aka C. Snouck Hurgronje
nationality Dutch
occupation orientalist/arabist/islamologist
birth 8 Feb 1857, Oosterhout, THE NETHERLANDS
death 26 June 1936, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS
burial 29 June 1936, Begraafplaats Groenesteeg, Leiden
marriage married in Jan 1890
(Raden Ayu) Sangkana (Tahib Resmi)

b. .... 1873, .......
d. .... 1895, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA

  • Emah (Salmah Gaffar Raden)

    b. .... 1890, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA
    d. .........

  • Umar (Oemar Ganda Prawira Raden)

    b. .... 1892, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA
    d. 17 Oct 1942, Bandoeng, Java, INDONESIA

  • (Siti) Aminah (Gaffar Raden)

    b. .... 1893, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA
    d. .... 1990, .......

  • Ibrahim (Gaffar Raden)

    b. .... 1894, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA
    d. .... 1976, .......

marriage married in 1898
Siti Sadijah ((Buah) Sueb Raden)

b. .... 1885, Bandoeng, Java, INDONESIA
d. .... 1974, Bandoeng, Java, INDONESIA

  • (Julius) Jusuf (Raden)

    b. 3 Feb 1905, Ciamis, Java, INDONESIA
    d. 6 Dec 2000, Jakarta, INDONESIA

marriage got married on 8 July 1910 in Zutphen to:
Ida Maria OORT

b. 30 Aug 1873, Meppel, THE NETHERLANDS
d. .... 1958, .........

  • Christien

    b. 17 Dec 1914, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS
    d. 20 Dec 2014, .........


father Jacob Julianus SNOUCK HURGRONJE

b. 28 Sep 1812, Middelburg, THE NETHERLANDS
d. 21 Feb 1870, Oosterhout, THE NETHERLANDS

mother Anna Maria DE VISSER

b. 15 June 1819, Herkingen, THE NETHERLANDS
d. 12 Feb 1892, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS

marriage they got married on 31 Jan 1855, Terheijden, THE NETHERLANDS
  • Anna Maria [VAN DE HALL]

    b. 20 May 1849, Chilham, Kent, ENGLAND
    d. 7 July 1931, Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

  • Jacqueline Julie [VAN DE HALL]

    b. 4 Dec 1840, Mechelen, BELGIUM
    d. 17 Aug 1926, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS

  • Christina Anna Catharina

    b. 19 Feb 1855, Terheijden, THE NETHERLANDS
    d. 3 May 1856, Oosterhout, THE NETHERLANDS

  • Christiaan

    b. 8 Feb 1857, Oosterhout, THE NETHERLANDS
    d. 26 June 1936, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS

  • Anna Catharina

    b. 3 Sep 1859, Oosterhout, THE NETHERLANDS
    d. 5 Sep 1881, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS



article XIII: Islam und Phonograph in Deel II Geschriften betreffende het Mohammedaansche Recht (in: Verspreide Geschriften van C. Snouck-Hurgronje (Kurt Schroeder, Bonn und Leipzig, 1923))

Until recently it was claimed that Snouck Hurgronje made cylinder recordings in Mecca in 1904. However, Arnoud Vrolijk informed me that in 1906 Snouck Hurgronje sent an Edison phonograph and wax cylinders to the Dutch Consulate in Jeddah. In 1908/09 recordings were made by consul Nicolaas Scheltema and members of his staff, among them dragoman Hadji Agoes Salim.

On 3 January 1914 Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (professor; 56y) and spouse Ida Maria (housewife; 40y) boarded in Rotterdam the SS "NIEUW AMSTERDAM". Final destination: New York. They arrived at the port of New York on 12 January 1914. His contact in the USA was Prof. Richard Gottheil (1862-1936) of Columbia University, New York. He was going to give a series of lectures.


  • Het Mekkaansche Feest by C. Snouck Hurgronje. Doctoral Thesis, Leiden, 1880.
  • Mekka, Mit Bilder-Atlas by C. Snouck Hurgronje. 2 vols., 1888-1889, Den Haag : Martinus Nijhoff, 1888-1889.
  • Een Arabisch minnelied met Luitbegeleiding by C. Snouck Hurgronje (in: Gedenkboek 1895-1920 by P. Cronheim (Ed.), W. Mengelberg. 's Gravenhage : Martinus Nijhoff, 1920, pp. 141-143)
  • Mekka in the Latter Part of the 19th Century [...] by C. Snouck Hurgronje. (Transl. J. H. Monahan, Leiden: E. J. Brill - London: Luzac, repr. 1970 and 2007. Dutch translation by J.J. Witkam, Amsterdam : Atlas Uitgevers, 2007)
  • article XIII: Islam und Phonograph in Deel II Geschriften betreffende het Mohammedaansche Recht (in: Verspreide Geschriften van C. Snouck-Hurgronje (Kurt Schroeder, Bonn und Leipzig, 1923)
  • BBC Broadcast on 8 May 1988 (at 10.45 GMT) by Rev. Carney Gavin (1939-2014) (recording on cassette available - HS)
  • The Earliest Arabian Recordings by Carney Gavin (in: Phonographic Bulletin , 43 (1985), pp. 38-45)
  • A Doorway in Time by Piney Kesting (in: Aramco World, September-October 1993, pp 32-39)
  • Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1936): oriëntalist (exhibition catalogue published by Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; with introduction by Jan Just Witkam)
  • Een Hollander naar Mekka. De actuele boodschap van Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje. (in: NRC Handelsblad: Wetenschap & Onderwijs, p. 51 (4 Feb 2007))
  • Pelgrim. Leven en reizen van Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, Wetenschapper, Spion, Avonturier by Philip Dröge. Spectrum, 2017
  • Snouck by Wim van den Doel. Prometheus, 2021. ISBN: 9789044635621
  • Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: a tour d'horizon of his life and work By J. J. Witkam (in: Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1936), Orientalist by A. Vrolijk & H. van de Velde (Eds.). Leiden: University Library, 2007, pp. 11-31)
  • West-Arabian Encounters. Fifty years of Dutch-Arabian relations in images (1885-1935) by Dirry Oostdam with contributions by Jan Just Witkam & Arnoud Vrolijk. Leiden University Library, Leiden 2004.
  • Arabic Music in Western Ears: An Account of the Music of the Hejaz at the Turn of the Twentieth Century by Anne van Oostrum (in: Quaderni di Studi Arabi Nuova Serie, Vol. 7, Arabic Literature and Music (2012), pp. 127-144 (18 pages). Published By: Istituto per l'Oriente C. A. Nallino)
  • Snouck Hurgronje Dan Islam. Delapan Karangan tentang Hidup dan Karya Seorang Orientalis Zaman Kolonial by Pieter Sjoerd van Koningsveld. Girimukti Pustaka, Cet. 1, Bandung 1989
  • Meccan Musical Instruments by Henry George Farmer (in: The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 3 (July, 1929), (pp. 489-505). Published by: Cambridge University Press)
  • Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje's correspondence with Ignaz Goldziher (online)
  • Collection Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje. Collection guide by Arnoud Vrolijk. Universiteit Leiden (Digital version: Peter Verhaar, Saskia van Bergen, 2006, 2011; Version update: 2 October 2020)
  • The audio-visual dimension. Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje’s documentation of sights and sounds of Arabia by Jan Just Witkam (Workshop Scholarship in Action. Views on Life and Work of Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1936), Leiden, Friday 16 February 2007
  • De controversiele islamoloog Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1936) by R. van Leeuwen and A. Vrolijk (in: Zemzem, 3 (2010), pp. 23-61)
  • Western Arabia in the Leiden Collections. Traces of a Colourful Past by Luitgard Mols & Arnoud Vrolijk. Leiden Publications, 2016.
  • Article containing news about Snouck's marriage (in: Soerabaja Courant, dated January 9 and 13, 1890)



For Snouck Hurgronjes see Nos. 5 and 6 on passenger list
For Snouck Hurgronjes see Nos. 5 and 6 on passenger list


Arnoud Vrolijk
Maria Kapkidi (co-researcher RP)